Components of the Computer - Input Unit, CPU and Output Unit

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A computer is an electronic device consisting of various electronic components. A computer is functionally divided into:

  • Input Unit
  • Central Processing Unit
  • Output Device


Input Unit

Input Unit is an electronic component that is used to enter the data and instructions to the computer. In general, the computer system can accept the special data format so that all input devices can have the capability to convert the data into some format which is accepted only by the computer. Input devices provide communication between the user and the computer. There are different types of input devices available in the market such as:

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Scanner
  • Joystick
  • Light pen
  • Microphone
  • Webcam
  • Punched card
  • Punched tape

The handling of these devices is different but the operation of all input devices is the same. Input devices provide the way for the the user to easily interact with the computer.

The main functionality of the Input devices

  • Get the data or instructions from the user
  • Convert it into the computer acceptable format
  • Give them to the computer's processor for further processing.

Central Processing Unit

CPU acts as the brain of the computer. All mathematical calculations and logical operations are done only in the CPU. It stores data, programs, and intermediate results. CPU is responsible for all activities that happen inside the computer. It controls all parts of the computer. It consists of three main units:

  • Arithmetic and logical unit
  • Control unit
  • Memory unit

The main functionality of the CPU

  • Stores program and data
  • Processes or executes the instructions
  • Controls all activities of the computer
  • Sends the results to the output devices

Output Unit

Output Unit is an electronic part of the computer used to display or give the output to the user. It provides communication between computer and user. It gets the results from CPU and converts it into a form that humans can understand.

Examples of output devices are:

  • monitor
  • printer
  • plotter
  • speaker
  • video card
  • projector

The main functionality of the output Unit

  • Get results from Processor
  • Convert it into the user-readable format
  • Display or give it to the user

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Components of the Computer - Input Unit, CPU and Output Unit

<< Previous

Next >>




A computer is an electronic device consisting of various electronic components. A computer is functionally divided into:

  • Input Unit
  • Central Processing Unit
  • Output Device


Input Unit

Input Unit is an electronic component that is used to enter the data and instructions to the computer. In general, the computer system can accept the special data format so that all input devices can have the capability to convert the data into some format which is accepted only by the computer. Input devices provide communication between the user and the computer. There are different types of input devices available in the market such as:

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Scanner
  • Joystick
  • Light pen
  • Microphone
  • Webcam
  • Punched card
  • Punched tape

The handling of these devices is different but the operation of all input devices is the same. Input devices provide the way for the the user to easily interact with the computer.

The main functionality of the Input devices

  • Get the data or instructions from the user
  • Convert it into the computer acceptable format
  • Give them to the computer's processor for further processing.

Central Processing Unit

CPU acts as the brain of the computer. All mathematical calculations and logical operations are done only in the CPU. It stores data, programs, and intermediate results. CPU is responsible for all activities that happen inside the computer. It controls all parts of the computer. It consists of three main units:

  • Arithmetic and logical unit
  • Control unit
  • Memory unit

The main functionality of the CPU

  • Stores program and data
  • Processes or executes the instructions
  • Controls all activities of the computer
  • Sends the results to the output devices

Output Unit

Output Unit is an electronic part of the computer used to display or give the output to the user. It provides communication between computer and user. It gets the results from CPU and converts it into a form that humans can understand.

Examples of output devices are:

  • monitor
  • printer
  • plotter
  • speaker
  • video card
  • projector

The main functionality of the output Unit

  • Get results from Processor
  • Convert it into the user-readable format
  • Display or give it to the user

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