# Fundamentals of Computers - Characteristics Functionality Advantages

In this tutorial, you are going to learn about the fundamentals of computers.

## What is a Computer?

Computer is derived from the word compute which means to calculate. In early days, the computer was originally developed to create a fast calculator. However, today, computer is used for purposes other than mathematical or calculation activities.

Microprocessors drive the computers and computing devices such as Laptops, Mobile phones, Washing machines, smart refrigerators, microwave ovens and alarm systems. Thus, computing devices have become an essential part of all human lives. It has found in many applications includes engineering, banking, medical, household, other marketing sectors and our day-to-day lives.

Computer is an electronic machine designed to perform mathematical and logical operations. Used to perform activities like editing documents, sending it through internet, searching, running program, developing application and so on. The main functionality of computer is to solve complex arithmetic and scientific problems at a very high speed.

In other words, a computer is an electronic device for processing data provided by user, storing it and producing the required output based on the instructions produced by the user.

## Characteristics of computer

Let us discuss the characteristics of computers.

### Speed

Computer is capable to processing data at high speeds. Computers cane perform activities in seconds which may otherwise take hours. Today, we are using a powerful computer that perform a millions of instructions per second. Speed of computer is measured in terms of microseconds, nanoseconds and even picoseconds.

### Accuracy

Computers are very accurate. Sometimes errors may occur - errors due to their irrelevant instructions or incorrect input data, not by the technology. Actually the degree of accuracy of a computer depends upon its hardware and software design.

### Versatility

A computer is a versatile device. Computers can be programmed to perform any task that can be organized as a series of logical steps. For example, computers and computing devices are used in every possible way such as railway or airline reservations, banking, publishing examination results, ecommerce, searching and finding information, hotels, hospitals, office administration, launching satellites, monitoring patients, analyzing large volume of data and so on. In other words, computers are not only handling complex arithmetic, but can also perform several kind of jobs.

### Storage capacity

A single Computer's storage can store millions of documents or images, audio or videos or any other type of data. Such data can be retrieved as and when required. Computers have primary memory and secondary memory. User of the computer can store and recall exactly the same information temporarily, in primary memory and also use secondary storage device (compact disk) to store large amount of data permanently.

### Diligence

Computer is not like a human being. In general, human beings get tired at some point of their working hours and may lose their focus. Computers can continuously work without getting any tiredness or boredom and can generate error free results. If we want to execute ten million of instructions, the computer will perform the last one with exactly same speed and accuracy as the first one.

### Reliability

A computer is a reliable machine. Maintenance of computers is relatively easier. It has long failure free lives. If any part of a computer fails, it will be replaced or repaired at minimum cost.

### Automation

Computer is an automatic machine because it works by itself. Computer can work automatically that means once task is submitted, it can continue to proceed until it has finished that task. However, computers being a machine, can not start themselves and can not both find the problem and solution. We need to give instructions so that it will carry out the task. By using these instructions, the processing of task can be controlled without human interaction. In the recent year, computer software applications are trained to find problems using a concept called Machine learning.

## Functionality of computers

• Accepts data and instructions as an input
• Stores data and instructions in the memory
• Process the data based on instructions
• Controls all activities of a computer
• Returns result as an output

# Fundamentals of Computers - Characteristics Functionality Advantages

In this tutorial, you are going to learn about the fundamentals of computers.

## What is a Computer?

Computer is derived from the word compute which means to calculate. In early days, the computer was originally developed to create a fast calculator. However, today, computer is used for purposes other than mathematical or calculation activities.

Microprocessors drive the computers and computing devices such as Laptops, Mobile phones, Washing machines, smart refrigerators, microwave ovens and alarm systems. Thus, computing devices have become an essential part of all human lives. It has found in many applications includes engineering, banking, medical, household, other marketing sectors and our day-to-day lives.

Computer is an electronic machine designed to perform mathematical and logical operations. Used to perform activities like editing documents, sending it through internet, searching, running program, developing application and so on. The main functionality of computer is to solve complex arithmetic and scientific problems at a very high speed.

In other words, a computer is an electronic device for processing data provided by user, storing it and producing the required output based on the instructions produced by the user.

## Characteristics of computer

Let us discuss the characteristics of computers.

### Speed

Computer is capable to processing data at high speeds. Computers cane perform activities in seconds which may otherwise take hours. Today, we are using a powerful computer that perform a millions of instructions per second. Speed of computer is measured in terms of microseconds, nanoseconds and even picoseconds.

### Accuracy

Computers are very accurate. Sometimes errors may occur - errors due to their irrelevant instructions or incorrect input data, not by the technology. Actually the degree of accuracy of a computer depends upon its hardware and software design.

### Versatility

A computer is a versatile device. Computers can be programmed to perform any task that can be organized as a series of logical steps. For example, computers and computing devices are used in every possible way such as railway or airline reservations, banking, publishing examination results, ecommerce, searching and finding information, hotels, hospitals, office administration, launching satellites, monitoring patients, analyzing large volume of data and so on. In other words, computers are not only handling complex arithmetic, but can also perform several kind of jobs.

### Storage capacity

A single Computer's storage can store millions of documents or images, audio or videos or any other type of data. Such data can be retrieved as and when required. Computers have primary memory and secondary memory. User of the computer can store and recall exactly the same information temporarily, in primary memory and also use secondary storage device (compact disk) to store large amount of data permanently.

### Diligence

Computer is not like a human being. In general, human beings get tired at some point of their working hours and may lose their focus. Computers can continuously work without getting any tiredness or boredom and can generate error free results. If we want to execute ten million of instructions, the computer will perform the last one with exactly same speed and accuracy as the first one.

### Reliability

A computer is a reliable machine. Maintenance of computers is relatively easier. It has long failure free lives. If any part of a computer fails, it will be replaced or repaired at minimum cost.

### Automation

Computer is an automatic machine because it works by itself. Computer can work automatically that means once task is submitted, it can continue to proceed until it has finished that task. However, computers being a machine, can not start themselves and can not both find the problem and solution. We need to give instructions so that it will carry out the task. By using these instructions, the processing of task can be controlled without human interaction. In the recent year, computer software applications are trained to find problems using a concept called Machine learning.

## Functionality of computers

• Accepts data and instructions as an input
• Stores data and instructions in the memory
• Process the data based on instructions
• Controls all activities of a computer
• Returns result as an output