Hardware includes the physical components of the computer. A computer has some internal and some external hardware components.
- Central processing unit (CPU)
- Hard disk
- Graphics card
- Power supply
- Connecting cables
- Other Input and Output devices
- USB ports, network ports, HDMI ports
- SD card readers
- Network card
- Graphics card
- Power adaptor
- CD drive
- Headphone ports
- External hard drive
Computer case encompasses most requiring parts of the computer such as motherboard, hard drive, power supply, few cables, RAM, All ports and drives.
- Computer case is usually made of steel, plastic, or aluminium.
- The size of the case is dependent on the form factor of the motherboard.
- Most of the computer cases are designed for ATX, the most popular form factor for a desktop computer.
- ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) is the configuration specification design board that includes both motherboard and power supply.
- Different shapes of the cases are available such as vertical case, flat desktop case, and tower case.
- Tower case is further classified into a mini-tower, mid-tower, midi tower, and full tower.
- Computer Case protects the internal components from outside environments such as animals, air pollution, liquids, etc.
- Computer Case can be used for keeping the area cool, cool down the internal components of the computer, provides the way for proper airflow over the internal components of the hardware, and reduce the noise of the noisy components.
- Computer Case also hides the underlying hardware components of the computer from the people whenever they use the computer.
Motherboard is the main board that provides backbone connectivity between all the components.
- Motherboard is a printed circuit board (PCB) through which all components can communicate with each other.
- Motherboard can hold most of the important components that include CPU, power supply, RAM, hard disk, graphics card, and sound card.
- Furthermore, it may contain a series of sockets and connectors that allows various peripheral devices and other circuit boards are directly connected with the motherboard.
Central processing system (CPU)
CPU is the brain of the computer.
- CPU can perform all arithmetic calculations and logical operations and controls all activities.
- As a whole, CPU is responsible for all the activity that happens inside the computer.
RAM is a physical storage device that stores data that is currently being used.
- It is a semiconductor IC chip that offers temporary storage space.
- RAM IS A volatile memory.
Hard disk is the storage device that provides permanent storage for the data on the computer.
- It gives a large volume of storage space for data or information.
- Hard disk is non-volatile memory.
All the Computers need a graphics card to display the output.
- The computers use a GPU(Graphics Processing Unit) that produces output in terms of an image to your display.
- The GPU contains an additional processor that takes data from the CPU and converts it into image information then that will be displayed on the computer screen.
- Sometimes The GPU is called a graphics card.
- In modern PCs, the GPU has integrated with the CPU itself.
Power supply unit (PSU) provides power supply to the computer.
- The PSU converts alternating current to low voltage direct current.
- The motherboard allocates those low voltage direct current into other hardware components of the computer.
Input devices and output devices
Input devices and output devices are the external hardware components directly connected to the computer via cables or Bluetooth.
- Input devices are used to enter the data into the computer, and the output devices are displayed on the computer screen.
- Examples of input devices are keyboard or mouse, and output devices are monitors or printers.
- The external hardware components are usually called peripheral devices.
- Examples of common external devices are I/O devices, hard drives, USB devices, speakers, cameras, scanners, microphones, headphones, etc.