Generations of Computers - First Generation, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Generation

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First Generation of Computer


Year1946-1959
TechnologyVacuum tube
LanguageMachine language (0 and 1)
Input DevicePunched cards
Output DevicePunched cards and paper tape
SizeVery bulky, large in size
StorageMagnetic tapes and magnetic drums for external storage
Important Features
  • Difficult to handle.
  • Emitted large amount of heat and hence maintained in air conditioning.
  • Limited commercial use.
  • Operating system was not known.

Second Generation of Computer


Year1959-1965
TechnologyTransistor
Language
  • Assembly language
  • Emergence of high level programming language
Input DevicePunched cards
Output DeviceLine printer
SizeSmaller in size
StorageMagnetic cores, Magnetic tape and Magnetic disk
Important Features
  • Consumed less power.
  • Smaller, efficient and more reliable than first generation computers.
  • Used the concepts of stored programs.
  • Costlier than first generation.

Third Generation of Computer


Year1965-1971
TechnologyIntegrated Chip
LanguageHigh level language (FORTRAN, COBOL, PASCAL, PL/1)
Input DeviceKeyboard
Output DeviceMonitor
SizeCompact in size
StorageMagnetic tape, magnetic drums and magnetic cores
Important Features
  • Weight and power consumption decreased.
  • Increased speed of the computer.
  • Executed million of instructions per second.
  • Used commercially.
  • Cost effective.
  • Concepts of multiprogramming was introduced.
  • Designed more Operating systems.
  • Important given to the software development.

Fourth Generation of Computer


Year1971-1980
TechnologyVery large scale integrated chip, Microprocessor
LanguageHigh level language (like C, C++, Java, PHP, Visual Basic etc.)
Input DeviceKeyboard and Mouse
Output DeviceMonitor and printer
SizeSmaller and portable
StorageSemiconductor memory
Important Features
  • Used object-oriented programming.
  • More reliable and portable.
  • Very small in size.
  • Air Conditioning not needed.
  • Vast development in the field of computer network.
  • Time sharing, Real-time and Distributed operating systems were used.
  • Cost of the computer is very cheap.
  • Concept of internet was introduced.
  • First personal computer was developed.
  • Used by home user.

Fifth Generation of Computer


Year1980-now
TechnologyULSI(Ultra large scale integrated), contains million of electronics components in a single microprocessor chip
LanguageAll High level language (like C, C++, Java, PHP, Visual Basic, .Net)
Input DeviceKeyboard and Mouse
Output DeviceMonitor and printer
SizeVery small and portable, palm size and handheld device
StorageRAM (Random Access Memory) for primary storage and Hard drive for Secondary storage
Important Features
  • Works with Artificial Intelligence.
  • Based on parallel processing.
  • Able to recognize natural language as input.
  • Use nanotechnology and quantum technology.
  • Capable to solve complex problem.
  • Today's desktop, laptop and mobiles are in fifth generation devices.
  • Very fast, more powerful and cheaper than all previous generations.
  • Always getting improved.


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Generations of Computers - First Generation, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Generation

<<Previous

Next >>




First Generation of Computer


Year1946-1959
TechnologyVacuum tube
LanguageMachine language (0 and 1)
Input DevicePunched cards
Output DevicePunched cards and paper tape
SizeVery bulky, large in size
StorageMagnetic tapes and magnetic drums for external storage
Important Features
  • Difficult to handle.
  • Emitted large amount of heat and hence maintained in air conditioning.
  • Limited commercial use.
  • Operating system was not known.

Second Generation of Computer


Year1959-1965
TechnologyTransistor
Language
  • Assembly language
  • Emergence of high level programming language
Input DevicePunched cards
Output DeviceLine printer
SizeSmaller in size
StorageMagnetic cores, Magnetic tape and Magnetic disk
Important Features
  • Consumed less power.
  • Smaller, efficient and more reliable than first generation computers.
  • Used the concepts of stored programs.
  • Costlier than first generation.

Third Generation of Computer


Year1965-1971
TechnologyIntegrated Chip
LanguageHigh level language (FORTRAN, COBOL, PASCAL, PL/1)
Input DeviceKeyboard
Output DeviceMonitor
SizeCompact in size
StorageMagnetic tape, magnetic drums and magnetic cores
Important Features
  • Weight and power consumption decreased.
  • Increased speed of the computer.
  • Executed million of instructions per second.
  • Used commercially.
  • Cost effective.
  • Concepts of multiprogramming was introduced.
  • Designed more Operating systems.
  • Important given to the software development.

Fourth Generation of Computer


Year1971-1980
TechnologyVery large scale integrated chip, Microprocessor
LanguageHigh level language (like C, C++, Java, PHP, Visual Basic etc.)
Input DeviceKeyboard and Mouse
Output DeviceMonitor and printer
SizeSmaller and portable
StorageSemiconductor memory
Important Features
  • Used object-oriented programming.
  • More reliable and portable.
  • Very small in size.
  • Air Conditioning not needed.
  • Vast development in the field of computer network.
  • Time sharing, Real-time and Distributed operating systems were used.
  • Cost of the computer is very cheap.
  • Concept of internet was introduced.
  • First personal computer was developed.
  • Used by home user.

Fifth Generation of Computer


Year1980-now
TechnologyULSI(Ultra large scale integrated), contains million of electronics components in a single microprocessor chip
LanguageAll High level language (like C, C++, Java, PHP, Visual Basic, .Net)
Input DeviceKeyboard and Mouse
Output DeviceMonitor and printer
SizeVery small and portable, palm size and handheld device
StorageRAM (Random Access Memory) for primary storage and Hard drive for Secondary storage
Important Features
  • Works with Artificial Intelligence.
  • Based on parallel processing.
  • Able to recognize natural language as input.
  • Use nanotechnology and quantum technology.
  • Capable to solve complex problem.
  • Today's desktop, laptop and mobiles are in fifth generation devices.
  • Very fast, more powerful and cheaper than all previous generations.
  • Always getting improved.


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